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When discussing the strategies taken to reduce the impacts of hazards associated with low-pressure and high pressure systems, students may present logically sequenced points progressing from monitoring, prediction and warning of future hazards, immediate response to lessen the impact once it has occurred to long-term planning. Students should display a grasp of a number of these, but do not expect all to be considered as students may choose to use examples that enable only a limited number of strategies to be discussed.
Management of the tropical cyclone hazard and drought is covered effectively in Chapter 5 of ‘Hazards and Responses’ by Victoria Bishop, Collins Educational on which these notes are based. Strategies available to address the impact of human activity on climate have been implemented at international level, by government action and by pressure groups and individuals. Students should re-visit relevant material covered at AS level.
|An Assessment of the Strategies Implemented|
1. Reduction in vulnerability to the hazard event.
2. Strengths and weaknesses of the emergency measures in place in the event of the hazard occurring.
3. Immediate reconstruction measures and restoration of basic services.
4. Strategies in place to ensure long-term reduction of the impact of an event.
|The Human Response to Hazards|
|Consider - How do the management startegies attempt to reduce the effects on the environment and on people (demographic, economic, social impacts)|
|High Pressure Hazards e.g. DROUGHT|
|- are slow onset hazards
- can cause droughts which link with human induced problems like desertification to cause famine.
- often the famines may result not from a total shortage of but from an inability of the poorest to afford the current raised price of food.
|Famine: Look at these different causes of famine and for each statement suggest how the problem might be managed or reduced.|
|There may be secondary natural hazards such as dust storms or wildfires. There may be long term disease resulting from malnutrition. There may be pests such as locust plagues.|
|Kenya Drought 2009 - Turkana Region of Northern Kenya|
|Managing the Drought|
|Modifying the Event / Engineering Schemes|
|Preventing or ending drought is not possible. To modify the event through management has concentrated on water storage. Engineering schemes involve building dams and reservoirs often as part of a multi-purpose scheme for irrigation, flood control, water supply and HEP. An example is the Nigerian schemes on the Komoduu-Yobe drainage basin. such a scheme is a high technology, capital intensive scheme which is not always suitable for an LEDC - as it may lead to increased debt.|
|Low technology management has included the building of stonelines in The Sahel will help with soil conservation.|
|Modifying Vulnerability - Prediction and Warning|
|Recent developments to modify drought
and vulnerability include early warnings of drought impacts, such as
crop failures. Warnings are possible because of remote sensing which
detects changes such as reduced vegetation growth. Other methods of
providing early warnings of drought impacts involve food and nutrition
survey systems. These aim to detect food shortages before famine
develops such as by monitoring child development. The Kenyan Drought of
2009 has evidence of such monitoring by the United Nations Office for
the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).
|This is an important management strategy since droughts cannot be prevented. In urban areas people may be encouraged to adopt water-conservation methods perhaps by legal enforcement. It is in rural areas, especially in LEDCs, that community preparedness is most critical. Unfortunately this is complex, since preparation for drought and avoiding famine is tied up with both environmental degradation and human socio-political systems.|
|In many semi-arid areas people have developed traditional coping strategies such as land diversification, migration and selling of surplus stock. Under severe conditions more may need to be done such as selling assets, calling in debts, or migration to urban areas. However, in reality, responses are mainly at the individual level and involve selling stock, praying, or using government aid, although many use no strategy at all. Many people would not migrate to the cities because of the fear of violence in urban areas and the lack of jobs. Apply these points to the Kenyan Nomadic Tribes in the 2009 Drought.|
|Drought Cycle Management Approach - and Drought Emergency and Preparedness projects|
|DCM strategy - Prevention, Preparedness,
Mitigation and capacity building aiming to reduce community
Emergency aid in severe droughts - medicines, food and water distribution.
Water harvesting, sand dams and emergency boreholes.
|So this video covers 2005 - 2008 and the drought is in 2009. Assess how successful the programmes have been! Is this fair?|
|Since poor land-use practices can intensify the impacts of drought, there is a need for better land management, especially soil conservation measures. In Australia farmers adopt a self-reliant approach, and land management is important in determining the famers' ability to survive a drought. Moisture conservation and crop protection practices are used and in some cases water catchments are stripped of vegetation and compacted to increase runoff.|
|Modify the Loss by Aid|
|Acceptance of or sharing the losses are
important strategies for dealing with drought. The large scale of
drought usually results in aid at government or international level. In
all countries, governments are involved in providing aid to
drought-stricken areas. During the 1984-85 Ethiopian Drought the
government failed to admit that there was a problem at first, mainly
because the drought was in the rebellious northern provinces. This lack
of action was partly responsible for the terrible famine which followed.
The problems in the Darfur region of Sudan (2008) were also intensified
by the government's actions. More than 3,300 villages have been
damaged or destroyed in Darfur, primarily between 2003-2005. This is
more than twice the number previously identified and strengthens the
evidence of a vast, targeted campaign of destruction against civilians.
What role has the government of Kenya played in the case of the Kenyan nomadic tribes 2009?
|Associated Press Appeal - 12 October 2009|
|International aid is mainly in the form of food aid by governments, international organisations such as the United Nations Disaster Relief Organisation (UNDRO), and non-governmental organisations like Red Cross, Oxfam and Comic Relief and even Live Aid for the 1985 Ethiopian / Sahel Famines. Providing aid is not without its problems. The food aid may not reach those most in need, may create a 'dependency culture' and does not address the human factors involved in the drought impacts. In the longer term, aid can be used to help farmers re-establish themselves and to improve communications and health facilities.|
DROUGHT PROTECTION AND SURVIVAL (Emergency Management Australia EMA)
We have to accept that droughts are a natural recurring hazard of the Australian environment. Farmers can prepare by developing plans which cover all aspects of managing a farm and take into account variable climatic conditions, especially drought. To further ensure an economically and environmentally sustainable agricultural business, advance strategies could include:
u appropriate additional fencing and pest/vermin control measures;
u planting drought-resistant crops and pasture;
u stabilising soil which is degraded or subject to erosion;
u increasing water and stock-feed storage capacities and planting shelter-belts; and
considering options for agistment (paying someone else to look after
the livestock from the drought hit zone) and protecting
Plans need to be specific to each farm but consistent with regional catchment management plans.
|Kenya 2009 [22 Sep 2009]|
|Kenya: Community-Based Drought Management [Agricultural Investment from the World Bank]|
|Emergency Appeal Poster|
|Ethiopia, Kenya - Horn of
Africa - BBC October 2011
BBC Newsnight on Kenya's region of Turkana and ongoing drought -
Long term roots of the crisis. Corruption
|Assess the effectiveness of strategies used to manage the effects of hazards associated with high pressure. (1.6)  Sample Assessment Papers 2009 (see Click for mark scheme)|